Armenian art in Zamosc.

Privilege of Jan Zamoyski in Belze 30 APR 1585.

Inspired by the warm welcome and the privilege of, many Armenians began to arrive in created the city, contributing to its prosperity, according to the will of the Chancellor Jan Zamoyski. They settled in the North-Eastern side of the square, erecting the first half of the seventeenth century houses with arcades along the streets from city hall to the East. Two centuries of their presence in Zamosc left an indelible mark on the cultural and intellectual life of the city, where the Armenians made up a significant part of the population. Even in 1678, during the depletion and slow migration, there were about 15% of the population.The development of the Armenian community provided such a right and privilege. Of great importance was the Royal privilege which gave to Murat Yakubovich exclusive right to manufacture and sell SAF’yanov and “Turkish” carpets in Poland for 20 years.

Such a broad monopoly on the production and trade of goods that are in demand in the market shows that there was planned the creation of the first Crown (the Polish Kingdom. — Approx. ed.) production of mass products, not only for local needs but also to export. However, taken in Zamosc an effort to develop and centralize this type of craft by the time was already late. The worsening economic situation and the crisis caused by the monetary devaluation in 1591, as also the plague, which broke out in the Zamosc next year, are the reason that artisans started to leave the city. Played the role of the change in fashion, resulting in decreased demand for genuine products. About Zamoyski SAF’yany we only know that they are not inferior in quality to the Turkish (here and below the word “Turkish” means “produced in the Ottoman Empire”. — Approx. ed.) and compared to them was definitely cheaper.Another area of artistic handicraft production, which was done by Armenians in Zamosc, was the carpet. According to the privileges of the king Stefan Batory by the organizer of such production in the city was also mentioned Murat Yakubovich.

Carpets made of wool and decorated on the border with coats of arms of Polish nobility, Tadeusz Mankowski associated with Zamoyski products successors Murat Jakubowicz. This thesis, however, finds no support in the sources, although in its favor, says active sheep farming on the territory of the Zamoyski ordination and other estates of Jan Zamoyski, as well as recognized outside the city the right to have full of wool. The inventory of the collections of the Museum Galleries Ordination Zamoyski in Warsaw do not give a clear answer to the question of the preservation of copies of carpets Zamosc in ordinatorskoy Palace. Named in the inventories of Persian, Turkish and Turkmen carpets are a significant number have been re-assembled by Stanislaw Zamoyski Costcos and bought Mauricien Zamoyski in 1906-1930. These meetings were also aristocratic belt of the eighteenth century,includingand produced at the manufactory, established in 1788-1789 years in Warsaw and Lipkovo Armenian Paschalis Yakubovich. The exhibition (the exhibition dedicated to the international scientific conference in April 2010. — Approx. ed.) presented two zones of this collection, currently in the collections of the Zamoyski Museum.Sheep farming on an industrial scale permits to obtain not only the hair but also raw materials for other fabrics, which were manufactured Murat Yakubovich. We do not know what was the scale of production of these goods in Zamosc. Their manufacturers should be a little. In the seventeenth century they were part of the guildhouse, and not creating a community, representing their own interests.

On small scale local production in this area is evidenced by the document of Jan Zamoyski in 1590, is exempt from the payment of so-called “sztychowego” (a type of tax. — Approx. ed.) and obligations of the display in the guildhouse “products of Turkish and Italian from Morocco, furs, Cordovan”. At the end of the seventeenth century the production of leather goods engaged in Armenians only furrier Arand he Painted. However, we do not know what kind of products he has produced.In addition to the production of Morocco leather, and carpets cordovana, Armenians were also involved in embroidery. We have no information about the existence of this craft in Zamosc. The nearest towns, where it was developed, was Lublin and Lviv. At the same time in Zamosc preserved example of the production of Armenian workshops. This is Reese (photo page 23), according to legend belonged to the Armenian Church in Zamosc, is currently stored in the collection of the Metropolitan Museum. It was made of Turkish cloth of the beginning of the seventeenth century. On fabric of silk velvet naitasiri and rear strips of canvas, embroidered with repeated motifs of rosettes with pomegranates enclosed within acanthus wreath and crosses overlaid with palmettoes branches.

Existence in Zamosc craft is confirmed by documentary sources. Already in 1591, among the owners of land ownership are two Armenian jeweler: Jakub and stanisław. Stanislav Abrahamovic was the son of the architect Bernardo Morando and performed work for the Zamoyski yard. If we consider the third of these artisans, named Krzysztof, the Armenian Krzysztof, which is about 1603 was the owner of the house in the Eastern part of market square, it can be assumed that the jewelry craftsmanship in Zamosc at the turn of the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries was concentrated solely in the hands of the Armenians. Perhaps with the Armenian jewelry workshops associated cylindrical reliquary for the hem of the garment of the blessed virgin Mary of polished rock crystal set in gold. According to Jerzy Kowalczyk this is indicated by the Moorish pattern on the leg, in the technique of niello (in Russian this technique is called “mob”. — Approx. ed.) that was fluent in Armenian jewelers. In the second half of the seventeenth century meet record on the Armenian jeweler by the name of Matulovic, but we know nothing about his work.We have no confirmation of existence in Zamosc Conviasa (convidarem called the craftsman, engaged in the casting of items made of tin. — Approx. ed.) workshops.

Organized in 1590 the first workshop (the Guild), representing mechanics and related professions, commisary were not mentioned. Privilege to this profession appeared only in the new Charter issued for the Guild of locksmiths, after of it in 1619 was granted to the Smiths. However, we do not know how widely this profession was introduced in Zamosc. Based on the processed Casimir Kowalczyk list of crafts to work with metal in period 1591-1821 years, two konvisar mentioned only in the years 1709-1715.

Thus, in the collection of the Zamoyski Museum a small pot for cooking the sixteenth century, decorated at the edges with a frieze of arcades palmettobug with strong Armenian features, you should consider following the authors of the Krakow catalog as a thing imported, perhaps from the city.Another area of art, which proved to be the Armenian artists, was miniature. Most fully here, with the possible exception of carpet weaving, reflected Oriental influences. Illustrated manuscripts were created in the scriptoria Zamoyski.One of the scribes, who worked in Lviv and Zamosc, Akop was from Tokat. Traces of the influence of Armenian miniatures, we find in the decor Zamoyski wall painting.

In one of the houses on the North side of the square, built in the years 1632-1634 Armenian merchant Gabriel Bartoshevich, under a polychrome frieze of the eighteenth century have survived fragments of ancient frescoes, created under the influence of Armenian decorative art. In the southern room on the second floor, in the frieze above the Windows separated by a pillar, preserved fragment of the figure of Christ Pantocrator. It was written on the Byzantine model and is surrounded by a thin, fragmentarily preserved vegetable branch. In the right corner of the window over the column elements among the vines the artist has depicted the bird with a long tail (pheasant?), pecking probably a bunch (p. 24). The motif of vines and bunches is also repeated in the frieze on the entablature (on the Western wall was preserved a single fragment, seen from under the reconstructed Baroque painting of the eighteenth century). Exquisite picture of vegetative branches, and other motifs reflect some influence of the art of Armenian miniature and probably belong to the brush of the Armenian artist.We have no accurate information about the activities during this period Zamosc Armenian artists. In the middle of the seventeenth century court painter Jan Zamoyski “Sobiepana” was Wojciech Manukovich, whose name can speak about the Armenian origin. We do not know, however, what the arts treated of work they performed.

Special attention should be paid to the stucco that decorates interiors and facades of the Armenian houses. The richness of plant, animal, and geometric forms points to different sources of inspiration. Cleverly woven into the composition motifs from the repertoire of the forms of the Italian Renaissance, Dutch Baroque and mannerism, United with ornament in Oriental tradition, creating a special style of decoration of the facade. Architecture Zamoyski buildings researchers have devoted a lot of attention. Focusing it primarily on the history of individual construction stages and spatial decision, they gave much less space to the analysis of the decor. Therefore it is necessary to look at the forms of the ornament adorning Armenian at home, from the point of view of their origin.The most extensive and earliest surviving versions of the decor belongs to the already mentioned house of Armenian merchant Gabriel Bartoshevich. Currently, the house is crowned by an attic pure Renaissance forms, which slightly contrasts with the decoration of the facade, retaining the original details. The vertical rhythm of the building define the window openings. Stone framing of the Windows on the second floor, with the edges of the classical motif of the Ionian cimate (kimati — decoration curved surface of the cornice with stylized elements forming a continuous ornamental line. — Approx.ed.) decorated pilasters, the Fust of which is slightly narrowed down and embellished over the entire surface characteristic of the later Renaissance ornament in the form of a series of flat circles, projecting one from the other. These stylized pilasters appear on the parapet frieze of the second floor and repeated also in the basement Attica, which in the eighteenth century, after the superstructure of another floor was punched window openings. The field between the pilasters have decorative motifs of different origin. The space under the Windows are decorated with winged angels ‘ heads hung on the ends of the wings freely flowing scarves. Head with angels hung on the ends of the wings lambrequins (decorative draping the top of the opening in the form of short horizontal curtains may have additional decorative elements in the form of tassels, ruffles, rhythmically spaced notches, for example, of teeth. — Approx. ed.) fill the Central part nadomnogo frieze. Another plaque with a winged angel’s head decorates the side surface of the window opening (plaques — small plates with relief images made from different material. — Approx. ed.). Plaques of this type, cast in wooden forms, are one of the most characteristic examples of decorative forms of so-called Lublin Renaissance, presents, in particular, in the works of Jan Zamoyski Mason wolf. The winged heads of the angels is not foreign to Armenian arts. We meet them, for example, in the decoration of the portal of the oldest shrines, the Foundation of which belong to the beginning of the fourth century, while the building itself was built in the period from the fourth to the seventh century. It is the Cathedral in Echmiadzin, the residence of the Armenian Patriarch (in fact, angels in the bell tower of Ejmiatsin refer to the XVII century. — Approx. ed.). Surprisingly close to ornamentalistike Zamosc and other decorative motifs of the Cathedral, especially the exquisite symmetrical motif of rosettes and vegetative branches with flowers similar to bells. Such an ornament is supplemented by a motif of grapes, fills panel of the top is a frieze house in Zamosc and trunks internal interwindow pillars. These antique types of jewelry combined in other decorative parts of the facade with fantastic motifs. Among the styling elements of the vegetation that populates the fields of the ancient walls Attica, and passing at the ends in the shape of gargoyles, hiding the creeping dragon. The angles of the walls is decorated with two lions standing on their hind legs. Antique and fantastic themes not connected to each other, but stand separately, as it made the architectural decoration of Armenian churches. The influence of the Armenian Echmiadzin ornament on architectural decoration of the Zamosc is not accidental. There is evidence of contacts with the cultural and religious centre of Armenia. In 1625, during the ceremony of laying the first stone for the construction of the Church in zamość was visited by the representative of the Armenian Patriarch of Etchmiadzin, the Catholicos Melchizedek (he was a co-ruler of the Catholicos and by this time it was not in Echmiadzin real power. — Approx. ed.), accompanied by bishops Martin and Elias. Frequent were the trips to Echmiadzin Armenians of Lviv and zamość. These contacts testify to the knowledge of the forms of Armenian architecture and its details, about the possibility of penetration in the local architecture.The character of a rich decorated facade of the house of Bartoshevich and other buildings that belonged to Armenians, influenced the decoration of the facades of the Polish houses. A perfect example of such relationships is a corner house North side (main Market square. — Approx. ed.), rebuilt Zamoyski Advisor Jan Wilchelm in the 70-ies of the seventeenth century. Along with decorative forms. – the leaf of mannerism and Baroque, he used some of the decorative elements present in Armenian homes.

In the house of Bartoshevich we find a rich set of Armenian motives. In the neighbouring building, built between 1632 and 1657 years, a set of decorative forms more modest. In the decoration of its facade abandoned vertical divisions, by entering two continuous decorative frieze. The top is a frieze composed of geometric motives netting, while a frieze composed of different sequences composed of symmetrical plant forms, sometimes in combination with geometric elements and rosettes in the form of stars, adorns the base of the ancient walls of the attic. Attracts attention located in the center of the stylized married couple. Placed on pedestals, figures of men and women with the volutes of ionic columns on their heads back crowning cornice. The field between the pillars are filled with floral ornament, similar ornament in the lower part of the facade.The house of Soltan Samvelovich built between 1642-1657 years, decorated with ornaments in the style of early Baroque. Form of decoration becomes more convex. Elements acanthus plant branches hanging from a centrally located flowerpot, suggest about the jewelry decorative frieze collegiate Zamosc. Finishing the leaf is decorated with cones, resembling Dutch shell. This frieze can not be compared with emancipatiebeleid weaving, tells Miroslav Zakrewska-Dubasov, because it relates wholly to the new repertoire of decorative forms of art at that time. The same applies to the shells above the Windows, and covered with sheets of ligaments fruit Mannerist cartouche.The space of the cartouche is decorated with the motives of Armenian origin. It is introduced in the center of the composition of the Armenian letters in the shape associated monogram, which is accompanied by Latin initials and last name of the owner (S). However, the Armenian motifs are present less frequently. Only directly lying on the ledge nadolna plant branch that grows out fantastic, facing each other, heads of birds or dragons, and the “vortex” sockets flanking a frieze under the eaves, indicative of the influence of the Armenian ornament. Geometric rosettes belong to the permanent repertoire of forms that adorn the ceiling beams of the Armenian houses. The most decorated and diverse are preserved in the interior of the house of Bartoshevich. Alcove of the second floor is decorated with original entablature with traces of polychromy. All beams have profiled edges and the Central beam is decorated with three carved rosettes (page 30 top). The middle one has the mesh geometric motifs, and the two side radially extending Crescent-shaped elements, creating the impression of rotation. Space on the walls between the beams filled panels decorated with motifs of bows in the form of a “donkey’s back”. Beams of the first and second floors of the rear rooms of this house decorated with rosettes in the form of regular restrictage floral motif, in which the space between the petals are filled triangles. These outlets often concave cut (house of Bartoshevich), and in houses of a later period — convex, where wooden parts belong to the years 1672-1673 also Often the motive of the sockets, filled with radially arranged sickle-shaped elements, which in one case cut depth (a beam in the house of Bartoshevich), and in the other convex, Recalling the coinage technique (the details of the house № 30). Sometimes there are also ornaments in the form of a simple radial sockets and sockets filled romboidale recurring motifs (the beam from the collection of the Zamoyski Museum). A similar beam is in the collection of the Historical Museum in Lviv.

Analyzing the Armenian art in Zamosc, special attention should be given to the Church, which, according to the above quotation from privilege the Chancellor, was built in 1625-1644. This structure has been the subject of careful study Jerzy Kowalczyk, Maciej Pawlicki, Daniel Pruchniak. The last one proved from a gradual move from the elements, typical for the Armenian architecture in favor of local traditions. Typical elements of this architecture Pruchniak include roof covering of the dome and tower of the Church Zamoyski, as well as the decoration of the facade, between the pilasters, “which used a narrow, thin panels, fixed small columns and archivolt” (archivolt a decorative framing arched openings. — Approx. ed.). Other elements of the building, the author quotes defines how specific features of Armenian architecture of the Commonwealth. The surviving documentary sources do not allow us to determine the nature of the architectural details inside and outside buildings. Their existence clearly shows schematically indicate the capitals of pilasters and narrow mezhdugorodnyj the chancel, framing the entrance portal and other details of the facade. We also have no information about the elements of interior decoration, which was decorated with icons, located in the carved altars. Some information about the interior of the temple contains the inventory of 1749, prepared on the occasion of the visit Stanislav imprint (imprint, authorized representative of the Bishop in judicial matters. — Approx. transl.) priest Yakub Marusevich. In this inventory there was mention of altars, and icons. In the main altar the image of our lady of grace “in the velvet dress and with Golden crowns”. In the side altars were images of Christ Crucified, of the Transfiguration, St. Gregory The Illuminator, St. Andrew, St. Anne, St. Onuphrius and St. Caetano (p. 33). All the Church decorations were sold at auction in 1795.Two side altars and the miraculous icon of the Holy Caetana was bought by the vicar of the collegiate Church (the so-called Church is not the Cathedral, which is a collection of canons,i.e.collegiate Church dedicated to prayer Collegium of priests. The clergy of the collegiate Church, unlike the other priests of the city, characterized by the presence of honorary privileges. — Approx. ed.) the priest Ketan Dermatoscopic for the decoration of a newly built Church. Catherine in the Lublin suburb.

Image SV. Caetana was increased in the lower part, to fit the new altar. After the Church of SV. Catherine was dismantled in 1810, the fate of the icon remains unknown. Only preserved iconographic copy of the engraving by Jan Makeevskogo the second half of the eighteenth century. What happened to the rest of the icons? The icon of our lady of grace, presumably located in the main altar, was moved to Sochi.Of Armenian origin, and is attributed to the image of the Madonna and child, which is in a side altar of the former Franciscan Church in Szczebrzeszyn. Analyzing this work, Peter Red suggested its origin in Lviv, as evidenced by the use of the technique of chiaroscuro. The picture is decorated in warm brown tones.Items of interior decoration of the Armenian Church, which was, as noted by mieczysław Potocki, “one of the richest, not only for its decoration, but also utensils and costly Church vessels, among which were allegedly retained some brought from Armenia”, was in total disarray. It is likely that some of the items went to Catholic churches, as was the case with the aforementioned icons, altars or ornate robe, preserved in the collegiate Church. This happened with the assistance of the clergy of Armenian origin who have polarizability, receiving the highest rank in the Roman Catholic Church. Among them was Jakub A., the son of Zechariah of Arabelovic of yazlovets’, who married in Zamosc the daughter of the jeweler Anna Matulovic. Belonging to the Armenian nobles, Zachary, repeatedly acting of Voight and juror of the Armenian community. Jakub A. (died 1739) was a Professor of the Zamość Academy and a Catholic priest. He held the position of Canon in przemyśl and in the end of his life was awarded the high honor of being infoatom (the so-called Roman Catholic priest, who received as a reward for zealous service and the right to wear during the service infula a Bishop’s mitre. — Approx. ed.) Zamoyski. His congregation belongs to two silver reliquary kept in the Cathedral of Zamosc: one is for the particles of wood of the Holy cross, and another for a thorn from the crown of Christ.The already mentioned priest Ketan Dermatoscopic (died 1828), probably a descendant of a noble Armenian Gabriel Derbetovka, was vicar of the collegiate, serving branch Church (a Church that is part of this parish, but other than his chief,i.e.the parish Church. — Approx. ed.) of St. Catherine. He began in 1772, the repair of a dilapidated wooden Church, and then made a significant contribution to the construction in 1793-1795 stone Church, which was partly decorated with objects from the Armenian Church…

translated from Polish by Yulia Galinovsky.

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