Summer is the season of vacations, cottages and mushroom. Who doesn’t like to eat fresh mushrooms, freshly picked with your own hands? But not all fungi are equally useful! So as not to make the wrong choice and collect a whole basket? Read our instructions!
- To go for mushrooms need early in the morning. If your “early morning” – 10 hours, so you do not mushroom. The Assembly of mushroom – 6 a.m., at least 7.
- The most favorable weather for the appearance of mushrooms is a warm rain in the sun. That is, if the evening was a fine warm rain, then in the morning will certainly be a good harvest.
- Don’t know – don’t take the mushroom. In any the slightest suspicion it is better to just leave the mushroom in the forest. Remember: life is more expensive.
- It is best to collect mushrooms in baskets of willow rods or birch bark baskets. In plastic bags and buckets, they deteriorate quickly because of the lack of air exchange.
- In any case, do not take already rotten mushrooms. Even if the rotten part to remove, taste and useful qualities of the fungus can suffer.
- Overripe and soft mushrooms, and worm-eaten mushrooms, too, is not worth taking.
Collecting mushrooms, especially those valuable as white and others never break the moss, not villevaude legs with mycelium. Dug into the ground a naked mycelium, which grew 10 years, the sun will dry out and die. Mushrooms will not be this year or the next.
You can’t eat unknown mushrooms, among them there can be poisonous. To this group first of all is necessary to include several types of lamellar mushrooms, pale toadstool, fly agaric (red, pantherina poisonous), false mushrooms (sulfur-yellow and brick-red), grey entoloma poisonous. Tubular mushrooms are poisonous is a real devil. Contained in a red mushroom alkaloid muscarine at a dose of 0.8 gram, and the most dangerous toxic substances phalloidin and amanitin contained in pale toadstool, in a dose of 0.02−0.03 grams is lethal to humans!
There are so-called edible mushrooms. They are not poisonous, and only have an unpleasant taste or odor. This, for example, gall fungus false chanterelle, boletus inedible, blewits mouse, earthy, fibrous, and others. To recognize them you can taste them, but I would not advise you to do this. Better to look hard: if the mushroom itself looks like you a little, then inedible. Especially the false chanterelle is a little similar to their edible counterparts.
Some edible mushrooms contain bitter or even poisonous substances that are destroyed or washed away after treatment. These mushrooms are called conditionally edible. These include pig-face, thin, pink fungi, some species of Russula. They should boil for 7-10 minutes, pour the broth and wash the mushrooms in running water. After this treatment, they are quite suitable for food, and many even have a very pleasant taste.
Composition of mushrooms close to the meat, and therefore they are sometimes called “forest meat”. By their chemical composition they are close to the vegetables, and the amino acid similar to the products of animal origin. Remember that mushrooms – heavy food, so for once you should not eat more than 200 grams fresh or salt 100 grams or 20 grams of dried mushrooms.
In food value mushrooms can be divided into four categories: first, the white mushroom, the saffron milk cap and Lactarius true; the second is the average quality of mushrooms (orange-cap boletus, boletus, suillus, a bruise); the third flap mushrooms, Russula, chanterelles, honey mushrooms, and a fourth low-value mushrooms (certain types of Russula, volnushki pink, pig-face, thin, Armillaria summer, etc.).
The most universal method of cooking mushrooms the following:
- Each mushroom cleaned from the ground, pine needles, leaves and put into a container with clean water.
- Rinse the mushrooms in water, then drain the water and rinse the mushrooms again under running water.
- Pour fresh water and put the mushrooms on the fire. After the water comes to a boil and you remove the foam, water is again drained.
- Pour new water, again put on fire.
- Cook until fully cooked (can be found in the Handbook for each type of mushrooms).
- Once the mushrooms are cooked, they can fry, marinate, pickle and generally do whatever you want.
- The only mushroom that you want to strip off the skin, is a suillus.
Fried mushrooms can be stocked for the whole winter. Well done, no onions and spices, mushrooms stacked in a glass jar and pour ghee, the oil will harden, and this is all conservation. Keep in a cool place until use. Bon appetit!