Amorphous metals have attracted increasing attention of scientists since their discovery in 1960. The first of the obtained amorphous metal was an alloy of gold-silicon. Then managed to get in the amorphous state not only alloys, but also many pure metals, including iron, aluminum, chromium, Nickel, vanadium, germanium, etc. it needed a cooling rate of up to 10 billion degrees per second.
However, the amorphous state of pure metals is unstable — when heated it begins crystallization. It is much more stable alloys containing transition elements such as Nickel, palladium, zirconium, lanthanum, and some non-metals — silicon, boron, carbon, phosphorus.
Most alloys are easily formed, corresponding to the formula M, where M is one or more transition metals And one or more so-called amortiziruemye items added to stabilize the amorphous structure. For example, known alloys of Fe, Fe, and etc.
To provide ultrahigh speeds of cooling melt is applied spraying of the jet of metal cold gas or liquid, “fired” drops of metal on the cooled surface of a metal plate or a rapidly rotating reels, the irradiation of conventional alloys by laser etc.
Currently, amorphous metals are obtained not only by rapid cooling of melts of metals and deposition from the gas phase on a cold substrate, with formation of solutions and melts by electrochemical methods, cathodic spraying and many other methods.
Due to the characteristic structure of the amorphous metals have a number of special properties: they are several times stronger, change their modules of elasticity, electrical properties, increased resistance to corrosion. In contrast to conventional glasses, they display a marked plasticity.
These properties define a special place of amorphous metals among other materials and attract the attention of specialists. They represent promising materials for future technology.
Of them it is possible to produce new high strength composites for their application in aviation and space exploration. Amorphous metal materials having high corrosion resistance, are used for a variety of chemical and magnetic filters, chemical vessels, electrodes, protective coatings in installations for the mining and processing of natural gas and oil.
A significant proportion of electricity losses in transmission falls on the transformers. New materials for the production of transformer cores, created on the basis of amorphous alloys can reduce these losses by half. Developed amorphous alloy having the required magnetic properties, but poorly conduct electric current, so the transformer core made of an alloy, not eddy currents, absorbing energy.
The interest shown by experts to amorphous metals, due to the fact that they are much cheaper than traditional materials perform the same task (if such materials exist at all). The most intensively amorphous metals tested in USA, Japan, Germany and the UK, and in the last 20 years, they began to study in all industrial countries.
In early 1981 in the United States commissioned the first plant for the production of ribbons of amorphous metals with production of about 2,000 tons per year. Now these companies a lot. Interest in amorphous metals is increasing. The number of publications about them exceeded a few thousand per year and continues to grow. On the agenda is the task of developing a cheap industrial technologies.